Table of Contents
What exactly is cabbage?
Cabbage is a cruciferous vegetable that belongs to the Brassicaceae family. Cabbage, white cabbage, collard greens, red cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cavalier cabbage, borecole, Portuguese cabbage, giant ribbed cabbage, headed cabbage, Savoy cabbage, or Savoy cabbage are all included.
Cabbage is a vegetable of the brassicaceae, sometimes known as the cruciferous botanical family. It is a shrub with blooms that have four petals and are arranged like a cross, thus the name. Turnips, rutabagas, and radishes are all members of this family. Cabbages come in a vast variety and have been farmed for at least 6000 years throughout Europe and the Mediterranean region. Hippocrates dubbed it the “vegetable of a thousand virtues” because of its therapeutic properties.
The cabbage's leaves are smooth and compact. It is available in white, green, or red. The cabbage used to create sauerkraut is a headed cabbage that is exclusively fermented to produce sauerkraut.
The Brussels sprout is a little bud-headed plant that pushes a rod that can carry up to 40 sprouts. It has a powerful flavor and is either liked or disliked.
The cauliflower is composed of several little white flowers that lack chlorophyll due to the fact that they are shielded from light by thick sheets. There is an orange-apple cauliflower that has much more beta-carotene than white cabbage. Romanesco cabbage is a cauliflower cultivar developed around Rome; it is also known as apple broccoli.
Broccoli originated in Italy before spreading around the world. It's high in vitamin C and K, as well as antioxidant compounds.
Chinese cabbage (pessai and pak-choi), rutabaga and turnip cabbage, and kohlrabi are further examples.
The History of Cabbage
The name “chou,” derived from the Latin caulis, first used in French in the 12th century. Cabbage was labeled by “caboche,” later by “cabus,” terms adopted from the Italian capoccia or cappuccio, which means “with huge head.”
Brussels sprout, which is, after all, a little head cabbage growing in the axils of leaves, gets its name from the fact that it was invented in this city about 1650 to make lucrative the cultivable territory, which is becoming scarce due to the pressures of urbanization.
The Latin term Brassica oleracea is supposed to be derived from the Celtic word bresic, which means “cabbage,” whereas bresic means “cabbage.” A Brassica oleracea is a kind of cabbage found in the vegetable garden.
The cabbages eaten in the West all descend from a single wild ancestor, Brassica oleracea var. oleracea, which some believe was domesticated 2,000 years ago in the countries of the eastern Mediterranean basin or in Anatolia, south of the Black Sea; others believe there was a much older ancestor, now extinct, which was already cultivated 8,000 years ago on the coasts of northern Europe. This wild ancestor would have been transferred into Mediterranean basin nations, Eastern Europe, and maybe the Near East and East.
One thing is certain: the wild species Brassica oleracea oleracea may still be found on the rocky beaches of the Mediterranean, northern Spain, southern France, and the south and south-west of the United Kingdom.
Depending on whether we wanted to develop the leaves (borécole, collard greens or cavalier cabbage, cabbage with large ribs), the leaves forming the apple (Savoy cabbage or Savoy cabbage, white cabbage, red cabbage, Brussels sprouts), the flowers (broccoli, cauliflower), or the stem (broccoli, cauliflower), Brassica oleracea has given rise to subspecies with extremely diverse characteristics over the centuries (kohlrabi).
Borécoles (kale in English), cavaliers cabbage (collards), or cabbages with big ribs (cabbage of Portugal) were perhaps the earliest cultivated cabbages, chosen over millennia for their larger leaves than their wild predecessor. As demonstrated by the borecole's Latin name, Brassica oleracea var. acephala, which literally means “headless cabbage from the vegetable patch,” these cabbages do not apple. This earliest kind of wild cabbage would have reached its ultimate form around the 5th century BC.
Then, as our preferences changed, we grew interested in the bundle of delicate young leaves in the cabbage plant's heart, and we began to like themes with this quality fully developed.
The head cabbage, or Brassica oleracea var. capitata, will arise during the first century of our era, and it will be given the name Brassica oleracea var. capitata, which means “garden cabbage with head.”
Over time, pointed, conical, flat, or round apple types will be developed, ranging in color from creamy white to purple crimson, and each will give birth to the development of regional culinary specialties.
Cabbage has several advantages.
Cabbage has a low calorie content, containing between 20 and 40 kcal per 100 g.
Furthermore, this vegetable family is abundant in:
B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6); vitamin B9, which helps combat anemia; vitamin C, anti-oxidant and anti-infectious; vitamin E, excellent for muscles and nerves; vitamin K, good for blood; fiber, healthy for the gut; calcium, helpful for bones; potassium, important for hydration of the body
It has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties as well. When immature broccoli sprouts are consumed for ten days, the anti-inflammatory effect is more noticeable (which are actually a variety of cabbage).
Cabbage is commonly found in the winter.
Every day, eating at least 5 servings (80 g) of fruit or vegetables. as the National Health Nutrition Program suggests. Two handfuls of cabbage constitute a portion. It is also advised to take advantage of their seasonal variation.
Cabbages are high in glucosinolates, chemicals that, when chewed, release two active substances. This damages cabbage plant cells and produces isothyocyanates and indoles by mechanical action. Glucosinolates are water soluble and degrade at high temperatures. To maximize the amount consumed, cook the cabbage briefly, either steaming or stewing. The resulting isothyocyanate is sulforaphane. It has been demonstrated in animal model studies that it inhibits cancer cell development and promotes self-destruction. It also has bactericidal effect (kills microorganisms), namely against the bacterium helicobacter pylori, which causes stomach ulcers.
Nutritional and caloric values of cabbage
For 100 g of white cabbage:
|Name of constituents
|Saturated FA(fat acid)
|Vitamin E activity (alpha-tocopherol)
|Vitamin B1 or Thiamine
|Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin
|Vitamin B3 or PP or Niacin
|Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic acid
|Vitamin B6 or Pyridoxine
|Vitamin B9 or Total Folate
|Vitamin B12 or Cobalamins
The benefits of cabbage
200 g of cabbage can provide up to 50% of daily vitamin C requirements, 20% of fiber requirements, and 25% of vitamin B9 requirements.
A natural anti-inflammatory
Cabbage leaves, applied as poultices to aching joints, are more successful than diclofenac gel (in terms of mobility, pain, and quality of life), according to studies, while Voltarene is more effective than diclofenac gel (in terms of mobility, pain, and quality of life) (which is associated with a significant risk of heart attacks).
Cabbage leaf is non-toxic, has no side effects, and may be used indefinitely.
A cancer-fighting ally
Sulforaphane, indoles, isothiocyanates, and dithiolthiones are some of the lesser-known compounds found in cabbage.
For the past two decades, however, several studies have tended to establish the beneficial benefits of these chemicals in the prevention of malignancies of the colon, stomach, lungs, esophagus, and other organs.
Antioxidants to prevent certain diseases
A high diet of vegetables and fruits has been demonstrated in several epidemiological studies to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, some malignancies, and other chronic illnesses. The presence of antioxidants in vegetables and fruits may play a role in explaining this protective effect, according to certain theories. Epidemiological studies show that eating vegetables from the cruciferous family including cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower on a regular basis can help prevent malignancies of the lung, ovaries, and kidneys ( in the latter case in women).
Antioxidants are chemicals that protect cells in the body from free radical damage. These are highly reactive compounds that are thought to have a role in the development of cardiovascular illnesses, some malignancies, and other aging-related disorders. The impact of phenolic compounds (a broad family of antioxidants) in 10 vegetables on the development of human cancer cells was examined in vitro. The combination of phenolic chemicals derived from cabbage has demonstrated one of the most potent inhibitory effects on the proliferation of these cancer cells.
Red cabbage is distinguished from other cabbage kinds by its increased level of flavonoids, a type of antioxidant. Red cabbage's major flavonoid is cyanidin, an anthocyanin pigment that also adds to its vibrant color. An analysis of the scientific literature on anthocyanins reveals that they have anti-cancer capabilities.
Manganese and iron sources
Iron is found in boiled red cabbage. Iron is found in every cell in the body. The transfer of oxygen and the production of red blood cells in the blood are both dependent on this mineral. It's also involved in the development of new cells, hormones, and neurotransmitters (messengers in nerve impulses). It's worth noting that the iron found in plant-based diets isn't as well absorbed by the body as iron found in animal-based foods. Iron absorption from plants, on the other hand, is enhanced when it is ingested with specific nutrients, such as vitamin C.
Manganese may be found in boiled red cabbage. Female sources include boiled common cabbage and raw red cabbage, with male demands being larger. Manganese is a cofactor for various enzymes that help in a variety of metabolic activities. It also helps to protect the body from the harmful effects of free radicals.
A vitamin K reserve
Vitamin K is found in abundance in both common cabbage and cooked red cabbage. On the other hand, raw red cabbage is an excellent source of vitamin K. Vitamin K is required for the synthesis (production) of proteins involved in blood coagulation (both stimulation and inhibition of blood coagulation). It also aids in the development of bones. Vitamin K is created by bacteria in the colon in addition to being found in the food, which explains why vitamin K deficiency is uncommon.
Vitamins B1 and B6
Boiled red cabbage is solely a source of vitamin B1 for women, while men's demands are larger. Vitamin B1, also known as thiamine, is a coenzyme that is required for the creation of energy, mostly from the carbohydrates we consume. It also helps with nerve impulse transmission and encourages regular development.
Vitamin B6 is found in both red cabbage and cooked common cabbage. Vitamin B6, also known as pyridoxine, is a coenzyme that is involved in the metabolism of proteins and fatty acids, as well as the synthesis (production) of neurotransmitters (messengers in nerve impulses). It also aids in the formation of red blood cells, allowing them to transport more oxygen. Pyridoxine is also required for the conversion of glycogen into glucose and helps the immune system operate properly. Finally, this vitamin aids in the creation of specific nerve cell components as well as the control of hormone receptors.
Cabbage is high in vitamin C. Vitamin C's purpose in the body extends beyond its antioxidant characteristics; it also helps to maintain the health of bones, cartilage, teeth, and gums. It also defends against infections, improves the absorption of iron from plants, and speeds up the healing process.
Selecting the Best Cabbage
Cabbage may weigh up to 7kg when harvested. It is made up of enormous, overlapping leaves that grow above ground.
Cabbage comes in three varieties: green cabbage, white cabbage, and red cabbage.
Cauliflower, broccoli, and even Brussels sprouts are all members of the same family.
To pick the correct cabbage, look for one that is solid and has tightly packed leaves. He shouldn't be assigned any work.
The headed cabbage will stay in the refrigerator for a few weeks in the vegetable drawer. Choose apples that are solid and hefty in comparison to their size. The so-called conservation variety may be maintained throughout winter in the cellar.
Savoy cabbage may be kept for a shorter time in the refrigerator. As a result, it's best to get started on it as soon as feasible. Brussels sprouts are the same way, since their tiny size causes them to dry up and wilt rapidly. School borers and horse cabbages belong in the garden, where they can withstand harsh winters. They will keep for a week in the refrigerator.
Cabbage benefits and its use in the kitchen.
Cabbage pairs nicely with a variety of different items, including:
Fruits such as grapes, apples, and dried fruits; vegetables such as carrots, beets, and celery; cheese; meat and fish, and so on.
Cabbage is also ideal for any of your sweet and sour dishes.
Cabbage has a lot of sulfur, which gives it that distinctive smell and flavor that some people don't like.
If this is the case, add a few cumin seeds or green anise while cooking to mask the taste.
Intestinal intolerance can also be caused by sulfur, which is found in fiber. Simply blanch them before eating them without moderation to eliminate this problem.
If the cabbage you're cooking begins to smell sulphurous, it's been cooked for too long. Cooking time should be reduced. You may also lessen the stench by adding a walnut with its shell, a stalk of celery, or a piece of bread wrapped in muslin (to keep it from coming apart) to the simmering water.
**The original Caldo Verde, considered Portugal's national dish, is made with chunky cabbage, a rare variety very similar to borécole that may be replaced. After the potatoes have been boiled in chicken stock, strips of cabbage are added. Thin slices of chorizo sausage can be added to this extremely green soup as a garnish.
**In Germany, sweet and sour red cabbage is prepared by cooking thin strips of red cabbage with apple slices, sugar, vinegar, salt, and pepper.
**A popular coleslaw in North America is coleslaw, which is made using raw, shredded white cabbage that has been let to tenderize in a vinaigrette for a few hours.
**Meats are served with marinated cabbage in northern Europe: the red cabbage is chopped into small juliennes, then put in a deep dish with fine salt and left to macerate for six or seven hours. We'll make care to stir it often, then drain it and combine it with a garlic clove, peppercorns, and a bay leaf in a saucepan. Allow to marinate for a day or two in boiling and cooled vinegar.
**The sections of cabbage are blanched for a few minutes in boiling water before being braised. Thin it out, remove the ribs and core it, season it with salt, pepper, and nutmeg, and put it in a pot with bacon bars, a carrot cut into bits, an onion studded with a clove, a bouquet garni, consommé or chicken broth, a little butter or fat, and a bouquet garni (preferably duck or goose). Cover with bacon bards, bring to a boil, and cook for two hours on low heat. Partridge with cabbage (guinea fowl or other game birds) is slow-cooked in the oven at a low temperature for a long period. We quarter the cabbages, place them in a large pot, add the bird, cover it with a few cabbage leaves to keep it from drying out, and add a little water. Quail with Savoy cabbage or Savoy cabbage can be used to make this recipe. Avoid red cabbage, which can turn the animal's flesh an unappealing color.
**Reconstituted cabbage is cooked in muslin to make Provençal soufassum. Line the muslin with big blanched cabbage leaves that have been chilled in water, then stuff with a stuffing consisting of chopped and seasoned cabbage leaves, bleached and chopped chard leaves, sausage meat, diced and cooked lean bacon, a chopped onion sautéed in butter, rice, and peas. Immerse the package in boiling water or beef broth and simmer slowly for three or four hours, tying the ends of the muslin to reconstruct the cabbage.
**Cabbage can be stuffed whole or after its leaves have been stripped (cabbage cigars). The customary components are half-cooked rice, garlic, onion, and minced beef, but you may also use almonds or pine nuts in place of the meat. The spices of the day are nutmeg, caraway, and marjoram. Tomato sauce can be used to cover cabbage cigars before baking them. Cabbage's core, or heart, is similarly nutrient-dense. It may be carefully diced to make it less fibrous, or it can be used to make broth.
**Colcannan is a traditional Irish meal composed with mashed potatoes, hash browns, finely chopped boiled cabbage, butter, salt, and pepper. We eat corned beef with cabbage and beer… colored green on St. Patrick's Day.
**Brussels sprouts are served au gratin, simply boiled in water and topped with butter, or in a Flemish mash, which is cooked, sieved, and finished with a third of an apple puree added. Make sure you don't overcook them.
**Borécole and cavalier cabbage are cooked with chopped bacon or smoky ham in England and the southern United States. They're also used in bean and barley soups and stews, as well as spicy sausages.
What dangers does eating cabbage pose?
Irritable bowel syndrome patients may be sensitive to crucifers. To reduce these adverse effects, blanch the cabbage for 5 minutes before discarding the initial boiling water and continuing with the final cooking from cold water.
Cabbage is high in vitamin K, a vitamin that aids in blood clotting. Some anticoagulant medicines need somewhat consistent vitamin K consumption from day to day. It is thus recommended that patients undergoing this sort of therapy seek medical consultation in order to determine the appropriate doses and frequency of use.
Blood thinners and vitamin K
Cabbage, particularly collard greens, is rich in vitamin K. This vitamin, which is required for blood clotting and other functions, can be produced by the body in addition to being present in specific foods. People who use blood thinning drugs, such as Coumadin®, Warfilone®, and Sintrom®, should eat a diet with a reasonably steady vitamin K level from day to day.
Kale is on a list of foods that should be consumed no more than once per day and in quantities of no more than 250g. People on anticoagulant medication are highly encouraged to visit a dietitian-nutritionist or a doctor in order to learn about vitamin K dietary sources and to maintain a consistent daily intake.
Irritable bowel syndrome
Some persons with irritable bowel syndrome may have variable degrees of food intolerance. Occasionally, cruciferous vegetables, such as cabbage, are affected by the sensitivity. People with this condition can alleviate symptoms such as stomach discomfort, bloating, and diarrhea by restricting or avoiding fermentable foods such as those from the cruciferous family. When the symptoms are moderate, especially during “remission” periods, it is sometimes feasible to gradually reintroduce certain items, while always respecting individual tolerance (for more information on this functional disease, see our Bowel Syndrome section. )
The interaction of crucifers with certain medications
Indoles, which are naturally contained in cruciferous vegetables, might inhibit the effect of some analgesics, such as acetaminophen-based medicines (Tylenol®, Atasol®, Tempra®, and so on) and other pharmaceuticals having a combination of active components (Benylin®, Contact®, Robaxacet®, and so on). People who eat a lot of cruciferous veggies should take this into account.