Table of Contents
The domestic duck is divided into two species: the Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata), which is native to Central and South America and was domesticated by the Incas of Peru, and the malard (Anas platyrhynchos), which is the progenitor of Peking, Rouen, and other contemporary breeds. Malard domestication is thought to date back 3000 years in southern China, although it would not have happened in Europe until the Middle Ages. This did not stop the Romans from keeping ducks in prison to fatten them up, but the latter were not completely domesticated because they had not yet lost their capacity to fly, which most breeds do. breeding.
It's unclear why the duck took so long to become domesticated in Europe compared to the hen and the goose. It's possible that it's because people only ate a small portion of the bird's flesh, content for a long time to grow it for decorative purposes, with certain species being particularly stunning.
Poultry are birds that are fed and grown for meat and eggs in backyards or factory farms.
Poultry are birds that are fed and grown for meat and eggs in backyards or factory farms. Gallinaceae (chicken, turkey, rooster, guinea fowl, quail) and palmipeds are among them (duck, goose). Poultry meats are lipid-free.
Chicken is the most prepared and consumed gallinaceae species. It may be used in a limitless number of dishes. It may be obtained in slices, as well as fresh or frozen prepared meals, in addition to whole or sliced raw chicken. Turkey and guinea fowl are also popular poultry options. Duck and geese are also available as foie gras or confit among palmipeds.
The French poultry business has developed several restrictions at all stages, from egg production through consumer-ready fowl.
Breeding is strictly controlled, with each animal having its own breeding sheet. Temperature, ventilation, heating, bedding, cleanliness, and food (60 to 70% of cereals, vegetable proteins like soybeans, and minerals and vitamins) are all meticulously monitored. There is complete traceability. Animal proteins and growth hormones are no longer used in the diet. Antibiotics are only prescribed on a case-by-case basis and never as a preventative approach. Poultry that is meant for human consumption is not housed in cages.
Classic poultry (best quality/price ratio, no outdoor route, 40 days of breeding, 20 animals per m2), certified poultry Qualities Criteria (specifications approved by the Ministry of Agriculture, 56 days of breeding, 18 / m2), red label poultry (farmhouse breeding and superior quality, 81 to 110 days of breeding, 11max / m2, outdoor course), and organic poultry (no synthetic product, 81 days minimum breeding, 10 max / m2, outdoor course) can all be distinguished Farm poultry is reared outdoors and in the wild, and is either red label, organic, AOC, or from a small production unit.
Poultry meat has a lower fat content than red meat. Lipids are located mostly in the skin, which may be readily removed to reduce fat consumption. The duck has 6% lipids, with more than 50% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), while the turkey has just 4%. Because they include all of the amino acids, the proteins are of high quality. There are also minerals and vitamins (group B vitamins). Meat is devoid of sugar.
It is suggested that meat consumption be limited to 5 servings per week. Animal protein is considerably too abundant in Western cuisine. Evening meals do not necessitate the consumption of animal protein.
Farm chicken or poultry from organic farming, like with other meats, is preferred. It is preferable to consume less meat in quantity but of higher nutritional content.
75 percent of the world's duck farms are located in Asia. Duck is particularly popular in Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, China, Bangladesh, the Philippines, and Burma, where it is consumed in large quantities, not just for protein but also for fats. Indeed, Asians' diets are generally low in lipids, and the duck comes at the perfect moment to remedy this, especially because its fat, which is high in monounsaturated acids, is reasonably healthful. Furthermore, in China, duck is chosen for its high fat content in the meat, but in the West, the opposite is true.
Ducks are force-fed to obtain foie gras (and geese). The procedure entails inserting a tube down the animal's neck into the stomach and administering a huge amount of maize porridge. The liver of the animal grows tenfold as a result of this procedure. Fatty liver has ten times the amount of fat as typical liver, but it also has ten times the amount of protein and significantly less water.
Force-feeding supporters argue that it is a natural practice since wild ducks force-feed themselves before going on their migratory route to stockpile food. Those who oppose it, on the other hand, maintain that the amounts consumed by the latter are infinitely less than those provided to farm animals (transposed to the human scale, they would correspond to ten kilos of food, twice per day, for two or three weeks).
Force-fed ducks would be unable to fly because they would be far too overweight. They have difficulties moving and standing, have trouble breathing because their liver compresses their lungs, and are unable to exert continuous exertion. Furthermore, ten to twenty times more of these birds perish during the force-feeding period than in herds of non-force-fed animals. Finally, individuals that have been force-fed had a higher rate of bone fractures and liver damage at slaughter. The European Union Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Welfare ruled in 1998 that force-feeding was harmful to animal welfare based on these considerations.
Duck meat what is it ?
Duck flesh is particularly popular among gourmet and traditional cooking enthusiasts. For good reason, its distinct and pungent flavor lends itself to a wide range of recipes, from the most simple to the most sophisticated. Duck meat also stands out nutritionally due to its high quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, which, when ingested in moderation, may have health advantages.
The duck's characteristics
Rich in monounsaturated fatty acids; promotes cardiovascular health; good source of iron; modest consumption for best results.
Fat accounts for around half of the calories in skinless roast duck flesh. This is significantly greater than the 16 percent and 33 percent seen in turkey and chicken, respectively. Duck, on the other hand, may be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet since it contains beneficial monounsaturated fats.
What Are The Nutritional and caloric values of Duck Meat ?
Duck meat has a unique nutritional profile as well as a high vitamin and mineral content. The following are some of the micronutrients contained in duck meat and fat:
** Phosphorus: duck is a great source of this mineral. After calcium, phosphorus is the second most prevalent mineral in the body. It is essential for the development and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth. It also has a role in tissue development and regeneration, as well as assisting in the maintenance of appropriate blood pH. It's one of the elements that make up cell membranes.
** Iron: Because men and women have differing demands for this mineral, duck is a great source of iron for males and a good source of iron for women. Iron is found in every cell in the body. The transfer of oxygen and the production of red blood cells in the blood are both dependent on this mineral. It's also involved in the development of new cells, hormones, and neurotransmitters.
** Zinc: Given their differing demands, duck is a great source of zinc for women, but merely a decent supply of zinc for males. Zinc is involved in immunological responses, the generation of genetic material, taste perception, wound healing, and embryonic development, among other things. Zinc interacts with sex hormones as well as thyroid hormones. It is involved in the synthesis (manufacturing), storage, and release of insulin in the pancreas.
** Copper: Duck is a good source of copper. Copper is required for the synthesis of hemoglobin and collagen (a protein involved in the development and repair of tissues) in the body as a component of numerous enzymes. A number of copper-containing enzymes also aid in the body's fight against free radicals.
** Selenium: Duck is a great source of this mineral. This mineral collaborates with one of the body's most important antioxidant enzymes to prevent the creation of free radicals. It also aids in the conversion of thyroid hormones to their active state.
** Vitamin B2: Duck is a good source of this vitamin. Riboflavin is another name for vitamin B2. It is involved in all cells' energy metabolism. It also helps with tissue development and repair, hormone synthesis, and red blood cell creation.
** Vitamin B3: Duck is a good source of this vitamin. Vitamin B3, often known as niacin, is involved in a variety of metabolic processes, including the creation of energy from carbs, lipids, proteins, and alcohol. It also aids in the synthesis of DNA, allowing for appropriate growth and development.
** Pantothenic Acid: Duck is a great source of this vitamin. Pantothenic acid, often known as vitamin B5, is a crucial coenzyme that helps us to properly use the energy in the foods we eat. It also takes role in the production of steroid hormones, neurotransmitters, and hemoglobin at various stages.
** Vitamin B1: Duck is high in this vitamin. Vitamin B1, often known as thiamine, is a coenzyme that is required for the synthesis of energy from carbohydrates. It also aids in the passage of nerve impulses and encourages optimal development.
** Vitamin B6: Duck is high in this vitamin. Vitamin B6, commonly known as pyridoxine, is a coenzyme involved in protein and fatty acid metabolism as well as neurotransmitter synthesis (manufacturing) (messengers in nerve impulses). It also increases red blood cell development and allows them to transport more oxygen. Pyridoxine is also required for the conversion of glycogen to glucose and adds to the immune system's normal functioning. Finally, this vitamin aids in the creation of specific nerve cell components as well as hormone receptor regulation.
** Vitamin B12: Duck is an excellent provider of this vitamin. This vitamin, along with folic acid (vitamin B9), aids in the formation of red blood cells in the body. It also helps to keep nerve cells and bone-forming cells healthy.
** Vitamin E: Vitamin E is abundant in duck fat. Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant that preserves the membranes that cover the body's cells, particularly red and white blood cells (cells of the immune system).
Nutritional and caloric values of The Duck Meat
For 100 g of Duck Meat :
|– Saturated fatty acids
|– Monounsaturated fatty acids
|– Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Why should you eat Duck Meat ?
The French have become one of the world's greatest eaters of duck meat, ingesting 3.3 kg per person per year. The remainder of the world's population eats 500g of duck per person per year on average. In France, succulent duck flesh is the highlight of barbecues, especially on hot summer days. To avoid harming your health, it's still necessary to pick the correct duck flesh. The breeding process and food are the most important factors in determining whether or not a duck is good. As a result, farms growing ducks from responsible hatcheries, such as Alban Laban and his family in Béarn, should be considered. There's also Thomas Becoye of the Ferme d'Enjacquet in the Gers, who feeds the animals while also considering their well-being.
It's crucial to understand that the duck's diet has a significant impact on the quality of its flesh. A good diet helps produce superior flavor and boosts vitamin absorption in addition to delivering better quality meat. In concrete words, a good duck is one that is fed only whole grain corn and is kept on an open-air farm. All of this is done with the utmost regard for the animal.
Duck is a fatty meat in general; its fat content can exceed 50% of its whole weight. However, this does not necessarily imply that it is harmful to your health. Duck flesh includes a lot of monounsaturated acids, which are a type of healthy fat with a lot of health advantages. Duck meat, like olive oil or avocado, provides a number of nutritional benefits. Iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, selenium, and vitamin B are all abundant in it. If you don't like dishes with a lot of calories, you can eat the flesh and lean sections of the duck instead of the skin.
Duck flesh is high in monounsaturated fatty acids, which provide it with unique health benefits when compared to other animal fats. It also includes a variety of other nutrients that are necessary for optimum health. Duck fat is frequently likened to olive oil because of its high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids. Duck, on the other hand, is a fatty flesh.
It's worth noting that the advantages of eating foods high in monounsaturated fatty acids come from research done on plant-based foods like olive oil and peanut butter. There are currently no research on the effects of monounsaturated fatty acids from animal sources, such as duck.
To avoid cardiovascular disease, the current tendency is to promote the consumption of foods high in monounsaturated fat. A diet high in these fats would enhance the lipid profile by lowering total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood.
Partially substituting 13 percent monounsaturated fatty acids for saturated fatty acids significantly lowered total cholesterol and blood levels in a trial of healthy males with a family history of cardiovascular disease. LDL cholesterol is a kind of cholesterol that is found in the bloodstream (bad cholesterol). It should be mentioned that several studies have indicated that a diet high in monounsaturated fatty acids might provide favorable effects on the cardiovascular risk profile that are equivalent to, if not better than, those seen with a diet low in materials. fatty.
Furthermore, compared to a very low fat diet, which is typically seen as extremely restrictive, a diet high in monounsaturated fatty acids may be easier to stick to in the long run.
Monounsaturated fat consumption also affects other cardiovascular disease risk factors. This would result in a reduction in oxidative stress in blood lipids, among other things. A diet high in monounsaturated fatty acids was proven to lower the oxidation of LDL-cholesterol in a study of young people (bad cholesterol). In vitro investigations by a group of researchers also shown this improved resistance to oxidation. Consumption of these fats also helps to reduce platelet aggregation, which is linked to an increased risk of thrombosis.
Type 2 diabetes
Insulin resistance, which is linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, may be reduced by monounsaturated fatty acids (syndrome X). An intervention research found that healthy volunteers who ingested 37 percent of their calories as fat, more than half of which was monounsaturated fat, improved their insulin sensitivity by 8%. Another study found that consuming a diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids improved fasting blood sugar levels in persons with type 2 diabetes. In light of these findings, it would be interesting to see if eating duck meat affects specific diabetes risk variables in a beneficial way when compared to other meats.
How can you choose the finest Duck Meat ?
The duck belongs to the Anatidae family of web-footed birds. For approximately 2000 years, its meat has been devoured. China was the first place where duck meat was discovered. Duck meat has soared in popularity in Europe for hundreds of years, much to our joy. Duck is now considered a refined meat and is quite popular among foodies.
The fillet is a boneless breast that has had some of its fat removed. A goose or duck that has been forced to eat. Aiguillette is a thin tenderloin slice.
Selecting the Best Duck
The duck's skin should be flexible, dry, and waxy to the touch. Depending on the species, the breast should be plump, and the fat white or somewhat gray. Choose birds that weigh more than 1.5 kilos since the proportion of bone to flesh in lighter birds is too high.
Duck fat is available at several supermarket and specialized stores.
Become an expert chef.
When the meat of the cooked duck is slightly pink, it is at its finest.
Internal temperature: 75 °C (165 °F) for portions, 80 °C (180 °F) for the entire; a thermometer put into one thigh should indicate 80 °C (180 °F) for the whole. Before roasting the whole duck, tie it at the base of the neck with a rope and submerge it in boiling water, which will stiffen the skin and make it crisper.
After the duck or parts have finished cooking in the oven, lay them on a breadboard, cover them with foil, and let aside for 5 to 15 minutes, depending on the size of the piece, to soften the fibers.
What if I told you… Originally, the famous lacquered duck (dating back to the 13th century) was formed entirely of the bird's skin, which was covered in a sweet concoction and then roasted over a fire, the wood of which had to be from a date palm, pear tree, or fish. This opulent feast was only presented to the wealthy, with the meat being left to the servants.
1 to 3 days in the refrigerator; 10 to 12 months in the freezer for the whole duck, 5 to 8 months for the chops.
The different pieces of duck
Duck, a refined meat par excellence, is one of the high-end items that has grown increasingly accessible throughout time. We've put up an essay to assist you in selecting the perfect item for your needs and, more importantly, in properly preparing it.
1- Thonge: a type of offal that is generally pan-fried but may also be boiled.
2 – The neck: despite its lack of flesh, it is a delectable component, especially when stuffed.
3 – Aiguillettes: delectable bits fried in a skillet or on the grill.
4 – Duck breast or duck fillet: identical portion with a different name due to the duck.
The magret, unlike the fillet, is from a force-fed duck, therefore it will be thinner.
They do, however, have a very similar flavor.
This well-known dish can be prepared in the oven, on the stovetop, or on the grill.
5 – Foie gras: exclusively available from force-fed ducks, foie gras is mostly enjoyed at the end of the year.
6 – Gizzard: sometimes overlooked, the gizzard is wonderful simple or caramelized.
7 – The heart: Forget your prejudices; the heart is delicious on a skewer, on the grill, and in the pan.
8 – Duck legs come in a variety of shapes and sizes. They're great simmering, on the grill, or in the oven. Plain or with a marinade.
9 – Legs: usually left alone, the legs are cooked in a simmering sauce or grilled. They can also enhance the flavor of soups.
10 – The sleeves: marinated on the grill, they'll be the highlight of your meal.
11 – The rump: try it grilled; it's delicious.
12 – The carcass: the carcass can be used to enrich soups or salads for the more patient.
13 – The fins: similar to the sleeves, they'll be great on the grill but can also be cooked in a pan.
How to prepare the Duck ?
The duck can be pan-fried, braised, roasted, or sautéed, and it can even be confit. It's frequently accompanied by an orange, cherry, or apple sauce, fruits whose acidity complements the fatty meat. Oriental sauces and spices are also great partners.
Is it a good idea to cook using duck fat?
Duck fat has a comparable composition to olive oil, although it doesn't quite match it. Although it does not contain as many monounsaturated fatty acids as olive oil, duck fat is considered a healthy fat (see our Fatty acids page (overview)).
Duck fat has 49 percent monounsaturated fatty acids, while olive oil has 74 percent and butter has just 26 percent. Duck fat also has a greater saturated fatty acid concentration than olive oil (33 percent against 13 percent), but is lower in saturated fatty acids than butter (33 percent versus 63 percent ). Duck fat, when consumed in moderation, may be a tasty way to enhance flavor to recipes. It's crucial to keep in mind, though, that duck fat, like all fats, should be ingested in proportion.
Everything is cooked in the duck.
** The fat may be used to cook brown diced potatoes or mushrooms, brown quail or rabbit, omelets or pancakes, fondue, spaghetti dishes, and so on.
** We may produce a handmade broth from the carcass, which will be used to make soups, sauces, and other dishes;
** Offal. As you would with chicken, prepare the heart, liver, and gizzard. In France, the gizzard, like the thighs, is stored in fat.
** Cooking the aiguillettes de canard : Over a high heat, the aiguillettes are swiftly cooked. Serve with a cherry or apple sauce. In addition, they can be breaded and sautéed in duck fat. Flambé with cognac or similar alcoholic beverage and serve with a saffron-flavored mushroom sauce.
** Cut a duck breast into slices and green onions into bits for duck soba noodles. In a skillet, heat the duck oil and sauté the shallots. Make a broth using dashi, black and light soy sauces, honey, and salt. Bring to a boil, then lower to a low heat and cook for ten minutes, then add the duck and cook for a few minutes longer. Soba noodles should be cooked, drained, and placed in a deep platter. Pour the duck broth over the top. Garnish with green onions and season with sansho pepper, if preferred.
** On a bed of endive or radicchio, serve a leg or breast as a salad. Top with a two-thirds reduction of orange juice supplemented with a few tablespoons of duck fat and lemon juice;
** Lacquer: ice cream made with water or vinegar, molasses, honey, or maple syrup is applied on the duck's skin. Before roasting it in the oven, it should be let to rest for a few hours.
** Wet rice cakes to soften them, then decorate with Chinese cabbage strips immediately returned to sesame oil, as well as thin slices of duck breast marinated in a blended mixture of soy sauce, honey, and sesame oil, then returned to oil or duck fat.
** Cut a few diamond-shaped slices in the skin without hurting the meat, and brown for approximately 10 minutes on the skin side; turn and cook for another 2 or 3 minutes, gradually eliminating excess fat. Allow the meat to rest while melting the chopped shallots, carrots, and celery cut into brunoise, and adding a cherry sauce. Serve the meat on a bed of wild rice pilaf. Serve with roasted and chopped hazelnuts as a garnish.
** Cut the duck into pieces that will be fried in oil or the animal's fat before being braised with olives. Finely chopped veggies (carrots, celery, onion) and pitted black or green olives should be added. Add the broth (chicken or duck) and cook for an hour and a half, or until the meat is soft. Add potatoes halfway through cooking if desired;
** Thighs confit: massage the thighs with your favorite herbs (rosemary, thyme, bay leaf) and set them in a big dish. Cover with coarse salt and leave it sit for 12 to 24 hours. Remove the fat from the remainder of the duck and cut it coarsely. Put it on the stove to melt, then strain it through a chinois or a sieve. Rinse the thighs in cold water after they've been macerated in salt, dry them, and simmer them in the fat for two hours. They may be eaten right away or stored in the refrigerator with the fat on top.
** Cook the candied thighs with chopped vegetables (carrots, potatoes, celery, red cabbage, white cabbage) and dried beans that have been soaked in water in a saucepan. Alternatively, sauerkraut can be used to cook them.
** Parmentier of duck confit ;
** Duck breasts with honey;
** Confit duck leg;
** Duck fillets;
** Peking duck.
What are Duck Meat contraindications and allergies?
Allergies to chicken are uncommon, although they do exist, especially in youngsters. Duck meat's high saturated fat content, which can encourage weight gain and the formation of cardiovascular problems when ingested in excess, is without a doubt the most important point of caution.
Keep an eye out for extra fat.
Duck is a fatty meat with a fat content of up to 50% of its energy (calories), with monounsaturated fatty acids accounting for a third and saturated fatty acids accounting for slightly over a third. Duck, when eaten in moderation, may easily fit into a balanced diet that emphasizes variety and a higher intake of monounsaturated fatty acids. Moderate intake is recommended, especially in situations of obesity, hypercholesterolemia, or established cardiovascular disease.