Where do peanuts come from ?
Peanuts were long supposed to come from both South America and Asia, and some still believe this, although the notion of an exclusively South American origin appears to be the consensus among scholars today. It would have been domesticated by the Arawak Indians living in the rich valleys of Paraguay 2000 or 3000 years before our period, before spreading to the southwest and northeast of Brazil, as well as Bolivia, where numerous species, including its assumed parent A. monticola, still thrive in the wild.
A. hypogeae, on the other hand, is exclusively found in the cultivated condition, indicating that pre-Columbian cultures had perfected the selection and enhancement of plants for human use.
It traveled from South America to Mexico and the Caribbean. The Spanish introduced it to Europe, as well as the Philippines, China, Southeast Asia, and Madagascar, after the conquest of America, while the Portuguese established it in Africa.
It, like many other South American plants, will only reach North America after a long journey via Europe and Africa, accompanied by slaves transported by sea from the continent. black. We continue to develop African-bred cultivars in the United States today.
The Americans will have to make do with feeding peanuts to their pigs, chickens, and turkeys for the time being. Things will change during the civil war, when the necessity to produce healthy and economical food for the troops will encourage farmers to plant it first for their own use, then for the benefit of the entire population.
Peanuts are now grown in all of the world's tropics and subtropics. It is not well suited for cultivation in the north because to its sluggish growth in frigid temperatures, while modest quantities are grown in southern Ontario.
Peanuts provide an oil that is commonly used in cooking, as well as proteins and protein isolates, flour, and semolina, which are used to enhance a variety of industrial preparations. Last but not least, we create peanut butter.
The name “arachide,” which first appeared in the French language at the end of the 18th century, is derived from the Latin arachidna, which was adopted from the Greek arakidna or arakos, which originally referred to “gesse,” a similar-looking legume (related to sweet peas).
The name “cacahuate” first arose in the early nineteenth century. It is derived from the Spanish cacahuate, which is derived from the Nahuatl tlacucahuatl, which literally means “ground cocoa,” and cocoa is a South American plant.
In Europe, “peanut” (also spelled “cacahouète” and “cacahouette”) is favored, although in Quebec, “peanut” is favoured. We also write “pinotte,” which is a Frenchization of the English peanut.
Nutritional and caloric values of peanuts
The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is a leguminous plant with two seeds in each fruit (pod or shell) (peanuts). Lentils, dry beans, and chickpeas are examples of legumes.
The nutritional properties of the peanut are intriguing. It is abundant in:
B1 (aneurine), B3 (niacin), often known as vitamin PP, B9 (folic acid), vitamin E; minerals and trace elements, including copper, zinc, and manganese; lipids (monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids).
Gluten is not present in peanuts.
The peanut (or peanut) is frequently misclassified as a nut. We can, however, remove the fat from which we manufacture an oil: peanut oil. The result formed after the peanut is reduced to a paste is known as peanut butter.
Nutritional and caloric values of 100g of peanuts :
|Name of constituents||Unity||Average content|
|Saturated FA(fat acid)||g||6.87|
|Vitamin E activity (alpha-tocopherol)||mg||9.13|
|Vitamin B1 or Thiamine||mg||1.02|
|Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin||mg||0.11|
|Vitamin B3 or PP or Niacin||mg||15.3|
|Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic acid||mg||2.28|
|Vitamin B6 or Pyridoxine||mg||0.42|
|Vitamin B9 or Total Folate||µg||145|
|Vitamin B12 or Cobalamins||µg||0|
Peanuts are a veritable powerhouse of vitamins and minerals that the body requires to operate properly.
Peanuts, when consumed in moderation, give considerable health advantages to the body. We normally suggest a modest handful of peanuts twice a week to reap all of its benefits.
Peanuts, a primary source of niacin, must be ingested on a regular basis because the body only minimally synthesizes this vitamin. However, vitamin B3 is required for the release of energy from the food we ingest.
Peanuts' components are also involved in:
the neurological system's functioning; decreasing cholesterol levels; the battle against cardiovascular disease; intestinal transit regulation; the production of blood, bones, and teeth; cell development; the slowing of cellular aging due to oxidative stress
Peanuts can occasionally replace fish and meat in diets that ban the intake of animal products.
Peanuts are one of the foods to consume on occasion; their consumption should be limited.
Peanuts are high in energy because they contain half of their weight in fat.
Peanuts, like other oilseeds, are an excellent source of protein for vegetarians. It is prudent in this situation to include it in the meals while keeping in mind the significant contribution in oils that this causes.
Finally, peanuts are high in zinc, copper, manganese, and vitamin B3.
Among the nutrients that make it unique are the following:
* Zinc: Because men and women require different amounts of zinc, oil-roasted peanuts are an excellent supply for women and a decent source for males. Dry roasted peanuts are an excellent source. Zinc is particularly important in immunological responses, the creation of genetic material, taste perception, wound healing, and embryonic development. It also has an effect on sex and thyroid hormones. It is involved in the synthesis (production), storage, and release of insulin in the pancreas.
* Manganese: Peanuts have a high manganese content. Manganese is a cofactor for numerous enzymes that aid in a variety of metabolic activities. It also contributes to the protection of free radical damage.
* Copper: Peanuts are a good source of copper. Copper is required for the synthesis of hemoglobin and collagen (a protein involved in the development and repair of tissues) in the body as a component of numerous enzymes. A number of copper-containing enzymes also aid the body's fight against free radicals.
* Vitamin B3: Peanuts are a good source of vitamin B3. This vitamin, also known as niacin, is involved in a variety of metabolic activities, most notably the creation of energy from the carbs, lipids, proteins, and alcohol we consume. It also aids in the synthesis of DNA, allowing for appropriate growth and development.
* Phosphorus: Peanuts are high in phosphorus. After calcium, phosphorus is the second most prevalent mineral in the body. It is essential for the development and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth. Furthermore, it aids in the development and regeneration of tissues, as well as the maintenance of appropriate blood pH. Finally, phosphorus is a component of cell membranes.
* Magnesium: Dry roasted peanuts are high in magnesium. Peanuts roasted in oil are a useful source for both men and women, as their demands differ. Magnesium is essential for bone formation, protein synthesis, enzymatic reactions, muscular contraction, dental health, and immune system function. It is also involved in energy metabolism and nerve impulse transmission.
* Vitamin E: Dry roasted peanuts are high in vitamin E. Peanuts roasted in oil are one source. Vitamin E, a powerful antioxidant, preserves the membrane that covers the body's cells, particularly red blood cells and white blood cells (immune system cells).
* Potassium: Dry roasted peanuts contain potassium. It is utilized in the body to regulate the pH of the blood and encourage the creation of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, so facilitating digestion. It also aids in the contraction of muscles, including the heart, and in the transmission of nerve impulses.
* Iron: Peanuts are a good source of iron for humans. Iron is found in every cell in the body. This mineral is required for oxygen delivery and the production of red blood cells in the blood. It is also involved in the production of new cells, hormones, and neurotransmitters (chemical messengers in nerve impulses).
* Selenium: Dry roasted peanuts contain selenium. This mineral interacts with one of the most important antioxidant enzymes, reducing free radical production in the body. It also aids in the conversion of thyroid hormones into their active form.
* Vitamin B1: Peanuts contain vitamin B1. This vitamin, also known as thiamine, is a component of a coenzyme that is required for the creation of energy, mostly from the carbs we consume. It also helps with nerve impulse transmission and encourages regular development.
* Pantothenic Acid: Peanuts contain pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid, often known as vitamin B5, is a component of a crucial coenzyme that helps us to properly utilize the energy supplied in the foods we eat. It also plays a role in the manufacture of steroid hormones, neurotransmitters, and hemoglobin at various stages.
* Vitamin B6: Peanuts contain vitamin B6. This vitamin, commonly known as pyridoxine, is a component of coenzymes that participate in protein and fatty acid metabolism as well as neurotransmitter production. It also aids in the formation of red blood cells, allowing them to transport more oxygen. Pyridoxine is also required for the conversion of glycogen into glucose and helps the immune system operate properly. Finally, this vitamin aids in the creation of specific nerve cell components as well as the control of hormone receptors.
* Folate: Peanuts are high in folate. Folate (vitamin B9) is necessary for the formation of all cells in the body, including red blood cells. This vitamin is necessary for the creation of genetic material (DNA, RNA), the proper functioning of the neurological and immunological systems, and the healing of wounds and wounds. Because it is required for the synthesis of new cells, enough intake is required throughout times of growth and development of the fetus.
* Fiber: Peanuts are a good source of fiber. Dietary fibers, which are solely present in plant products, are a group of chemicals that the body does not digest. A fiber-rich diet can help prevent cardiovascular disease, regulate type 2 diabetes, and enhance appetite, in addition to reducing constipation and lowering the risk of colon cancer. Remember that women between the ages of 19 and 50 should take 25 g of fiber per day, while males between the ages of 19 and 50 should consume 38 g per day.
Due to its astonishing composition, peanuts are a real health ally when they are incorporated in moderation into a varied and balanced diet.
It would participate, among other things, in protecting the cardiovascular system and preventing certain chronic pathologies.
Cardiovascular diseases and peanuts
Peanut eating is linked to reduced blood cholesterol and a lower risk of cardiovascular disease in epidemiological research. Several blood parameters beneficial to cardiovascular health, such as magnesium, folate, vitamin E, copper, and arginine, improved in a 30-week clinical research on the effect of frequent peanut eating (an amino acid). Furthermore, the lipids in peanuts are mostly “healthy fats” for heart health (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated). Peanuts also include phytosterols, which have been demonstrated to promote cardiovascular health and have a structure comparable to cholesterol found in animal products.
A 32 g (2 tbsp) portion of peanut butter has around 50 mg of phytosterols, whereas a 37 g (60 ml) serving of dry roasted peanuts contains about 42 mg. A meta-analysis of 41 clinical studies indicated that ingesting 2 g of phytosterols per day lowered LDL (“bad”) cholesterol levels by 10%; in the setting of a poor diet, this reduction might approach 20%. in saturated fat and cholesterol. This amount of 2 g per day is quite challenging to obtain only via eating. As a result, products containing phytosterols, such as margarine, have been introduced to the market.
Phytosterols naturally found in food are nonetheless interesting for cardiovascular health, even if they are present in extremely minute concentrations.
Finally, resveratrol, a chemical found in peanuts, has been demonstrated to aid in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Although the synthesis of resveratrol increases dramatically when peanuts come into touch with particular microbes, a research found it up to 1.79 g / g in diverse American peanuts that had no interaction with microorganisms. -organisms. This quantity is similar to that found in certain grapes, although it is less than that found in wine, which is a relatively high source of resveratrol. Peanut resveratrol, on the other hand, has yet to be thoroughly investigated in people.
Cancers and peanuts
Women who ate two or more servings of peanuts per week had a decreased risk of colorectal cancer, according to a prospective research with certain limitations. Peanuts also contain chemicals that may be helpful in the prevention of cancer. Phytosterols, for example, have been proven in vitro and animal studies to inhibit the development of cancer cells in the breast, colon, and prostate. Phytosterols have been linked to a lower incidence of lung cancer in humans. As previously stated, peanuts contain resveratrol, an antioxidant that has the capacity to convert into piceatannol, an anti-cancer molecule.
This change would be carried out by a specific enzyme found in malignant tumors. However, further research is needed to examine all of these peanut chemicals in terms of cancer prevention.
Type 2 diabetes and peanuts .
A big epidemiological study found that women who eat peanut butter often (at least 5 tablespoons per week) have a decreased chance of getting type 2 diabetes. Several factors have been proposed as explanations for these advantages, including the fiber and magnesium content, both of which are thought to be advantageous in the prevention of diabetes.
Gallstones and peanuts .
Regular eating of peanuts has been related to a lower incidence of gallstones in males and gallbladder removal in women in epidemiological studies. The numerous beneficial constituents of blood lipids, such as “good fats” (mono and polyunsaturated), dietary fibre, phytosterols, or even magnesium, might be responsible for these benefits.
Peanut consumption precautions
Peanuts, which are high in calories, should not be abused, and those who are overweight or obese, as well as those who merely want to maintain a healthy weight, should be cautious.
The protein in peanuts causes allergies in many people. Even little levels of these allergenic proteins can cause major health issues and, in extreme circumstances, death.
Sodium is naturally present in the often used salted peanuts as an aperitif. It is not suggested for persons who have high blood pressure. Because they do not contain salt, peanuts in pods that just need to be shelled are preferred.
Finally, for the following reasons, peanuts should never be fed to a young child:
The biggest reason is the risk of suffocation, but there is also the chance of developing a peanut allergy, which may be fatal in toddlers
It poses a significant choking risk and can trigger a severe allergic reaction.
It is preferable to buy peanuts in pods rather than salted peanuts. They may be preserved for two to three months if stored in an airtight box in a refrigerator compartment.
Dry roasted peanuts have a greater fat content than those cooked in oil (the latter are commonly sold as “roasted peanuts”). They are also frequently higher in salt. As a result, take sure to thoroughly read the labeling.
The peanut has a little fruit that is often known as the peanut. This lipid-rich oilseed originates from an annual plant with yellow blooms that grows between 20cm and 1m tall. It distinguishes itself from other nuts due to its distinctive oval form, as well as its rich and distinct flavor.
* peanut butter
Salt, chemical preservatives, flavorings, and added sugars are common ingredients in industrial goods. Furthermore, hydrogenated oils are added to maintain their stability (source of trans fat). There are natural butters on the market that are made entirely of crushed peanuts. Many grocery stores also feature electric mills for making butter from bulk peanuts. It is important to note that in natural peanut butter, the oil frequently rises to the surface, which is a typical phenomena that can be remedied by swirling everything with a knife. Natural peanut butter only lasts a week or two at room temperature, but two months in the refrigerated.
In 1890, peanut butter first arrived on the American market. It was first thought to be a health meal for the ill due to its high protein content and low carbohydrate level.
* Peanut oil
In most cases, commercial peanut oil is hot extracted using a chemical solvent, then deodorized, bleached, and ultrafiltered. It could have chemical preservatives in it (BHT, BHA). It is the cheapest and can be obtained at any grocery shop. Cold-pressed peanut oil is uncommon in Quebec, but it is available in France, where it is squeezed from roasted beans, giving it a taste that is valued in cooking. It is decanted and filtered before being bottled in an opaque container to preserve all of the nutritious benefits and fragrance. It does not go through any further changes. Organic peanut oil is quite expensive to make, hence it is rarely seen in Quebec. Peanuts are one of the few legumes that store more oil than carbs in their seeds.
Peanuts are one of the most important components in cooking. For fans of international cuisine, it adds a touch of adventure to even the most basic recipes. Furthermore, peanuts are most commonly seen in African, American, and Asian cuisines, much to our delight.
Whether shelled or in shell, commercial peanuts are frequently roasted. Raw peanuts, on the other hand, can be prepared at home:
* To toast, arrange on a metal baking sheet in a single row and roast for 15 to 20 minutes at 175 ° C (350 ° F) in a preheated oven. Then season with salt, garlic salt, grated Parmesan, chile powder, cinnamon, cumin, dried and crushed herbs, or any other spice you choose;
* They get a soft texture when cooked in water, which other cooking techniques don't allow. You may eat them plain or add them to soups, salads, stews, and other dishes. They're a wonderful substitute for water chestnuts in Chinese cooking. They will be steeped in water overnight before being cooked for eight to ten hours at extremely low heat. As needed, add more water. They're cooked with chile in Africa, which is thought to make them easier to stomach.
Peanuts can be used whole, pounded, crushed, or processed into a paste for a variety of dishes. Because of its high protein content, it may be used to replace meat or fish in whole or in part, as is typical in Asia and Africa.
* Mexican chicken. Cook the cut-up chicken in a sauce made with tomatoes, peanuts, garlic, onion, chicken broth, cinnamon, and chile (all of these ingredients are blended first).
* Satay sauce is a type of sauce that originated in Thailand. This sauce is often served with pork or shrimp skewers in Indonesia and Malaysia, but it may also be used to season skewers of vegetables (tomatoes, onions, peppers, eggplants, mushrooms) and tofu. Brown the peanuts in the oil before blending or crushing them. Water, sugar or honey, and a chile paste made with salt, shallots, and garlic are used to cook them. You may also prepare the sauce with peanut butter and store-bought sambal instead of homemade chili paste (Indonesian hot sauce).
The satay sauce, which is flavored with grated coconut and lemon juice, is used to season the gado-gado salad, which is created with boiled potatoes and barely blanched vegetables to maintain their crunch: carrots, green beans, cauliflower, and bean sprouts. Cucumber slices and sliced hard-boiled eggs are served on lettuce leaves.
* Rempeyek kacang These classic Southeast Asian pancakes can be served with rice and curries or as an aperitif. To make them, split the peanuts in half (along the dividing line between the two pieces), place them in a bowl, and cover them with a milk-based dough that has the consistency of pancake batter. spice paste, coconut, water, rice flour and corn flour (garlic, shallots, turmeric, coriander seeds and, if found, lime leaves). Cook a spoonful of peanut-pancake batter at a time in oil until peanuts are lightly toasted;
* Mboum couscous This African meal is made using fresh and dried fish that has been cooked in water for half an hour. At the same time, cabbage leaves are steam or water cooked for half an hour (if desired, choose one of the various kinds of Chinese cabbage). Pass peanuts through a sieve after crushing them. Combine the onion and peanut remains in a blender. Cook cabbage, onion, and peanut paste for an hour, then add sifted peanut flour, boneless fish, and a tiny hot pepper. Serve with couscous, preferably millet;
* The Senegalese gnama-gnama. This general term refers to the sweets that may be found in Senegal's cities at any time. They are sold by itinerant sellers at street corners and in front of businesses. In the sand, the most popular is roasted peanuts without oil.
* Spring rolls are a type of appetizer. In the middle of a rice cake, spread a sauce made with honey mustard, peanut butter, Hoisin sauce, chili sauce, lime juice, and shredded ginger. Chicken strips, chopped green onion, sliced celery, bean sprouts, and chopped toasted peanuts go on top of the sauce. Make a cylinder out of the pancake, then split it in half and serve;
* Thai dishes. In Thai curry meals prepared with coconut milk, unsalted and chopped peanuts are used.
They may also be served as an aperitif by combining them with other ingredients such as shredded and oven-roasted coconut, finely chopped green onions, peeled lime wedges, grated ginger, small dried shrimp, and small hot peppers on a platter.
The guests pack a leaf of lettuce or similar plant with their preferred toppings and close it to form a nibble, which they then dip in a sauce created from the same components blended together.
Preserving the peanut
Raw peanuts can be blanched or roasted for three to five minutes in the oven, or frozen overnight, to remove the skin. In every scenario, we'll massage them between our palms.
Roast in the refrigerator or in a cold, dry location. Three months in the shell; nine months in the hull.
Raw: three months in the refrigerator, six months in the freezer;
Natural peanut butter (without chemical preservatives): once started, keep at room temperature for a week or two before refrigerating for two months;
Peanut Oil: Refined oil may be kept at room temperature forever.
Peanuts are listed as a significant allergy by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). Peanut allergies are dangerous, and even a tiny quantity of peanut can cause anaphylactic shock. Any product containing peanuts or whose label implies a chance of having them should be avoided by anyone with allergies. Peanut oil should also be avoided since it contains protein particles, which are the source of the allergy. Furthermore, it is recommended that you avoid eating nuts in general (both nuts and oilseeds) because they have a high allergic potential and are frequently handled and sold by firms that specialize in nuts. peanuts.
Peanut allergy is the second most prevalent cause of food allergy before the age of three and the primary cause after that.
After consumption of a peanut, a food product containing it (appetizer cakes, puffed peanuts, etc.), or after skin contact, allergic symptoms might be detected.
Eczema flare-ups are the most common symptom of the allergy in children under the age of three.
Hives, edema, anaphylactic shock, asthma attacks, and digestive difficulties are more prevalent in older children and adults.
Food allergies can cross: beans, lentils, lupine, white beans, walnuts, hazelnuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio, peas, chickpeas, soy, walnuts, hazelnuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio, peas, chickpeas, soy, walnuts, hazelnuts, Brazil nuts,
In a specialist healthcare service, oral provocation tests are occasionally employed.
This test can be used to determine the reactogenic threshold and, in some cases, the kind of manifestation.